pp. 561-568 | Article Number: iejme.2017.030
Published Online: July 22, 2017
Article Views: 145 | Article Download: 241
This paper reviews the literature concerning the risks associated with Highway- Railway Crossings (HRC). The aim of this study is to evaluate and validate previous investigations conducted in the United States and Canada. The main issues addressed in this paper are: a) Identify HRC with potential the average collision frequency or collision severity as black spots, tests that are used to identifying hazardous location and compare the methods, b)Identify the contributing factors to safety problems at an identified HRC location, c)Identification of countermeasures to address the contributing factors. This research has thrown up many questions in need of further investigations on risks associated with HRC to mitigate the accident frequency and injury severity.
Keywords: Highway-railway crossings safety management process
Bahar, G., Masliah, M., Philp, C., Shen, K., Park, P., Bhim, R., 2007. Development of a Traffic Safety Management System: High Proportion Screening Tool: Selection of a High Proportion Testing Tool, State of Utah, US Department of Transportation, Interim Report.
Bolduc, D., Bonin, S., 1995. Bayesian analysis of road accidents: accounting for deterministicheterogeneity. In: Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference IX, Montreal, Canada.
Brose, C.A., 2001. Geographic Information Systems for Spatial Analysis of Traffic Collision Locations in La Crosse.Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota, Wisconsin.City of Saskatoon, 2009.Traffic Characteristics Report.
Cheng, W.,Washington, S., 2005. Experimental evaluation of hotspot identification methods. Accident Analysis and Prevention 37, 870–881.
Canadian road/railway grade crossing detailed safety assessment field guide, 2005. Transport Canada. Cheng, W., Washington, S., 2008.New Criteria for Evaluating Methods of Identifying Hot Spots.Transportation Research Record, 2083. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 76–85.
Cognitive Ergonomics Research Laboratory Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2002. A human factors analysis of highway-railway grade crossing accidents in Canada. Transportation Development Centre Transport Canada.
Elvik, R., 2007. State-of-the-Art Approaches to Road Accident Black Spot Management and Safety Analysis of Road Networks.Report 883. Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo.
Elvik, R., 2008a. Comparative Analysis of Techniques for Identifying Hazardous Road Locations.Transportation Research Record, 2083. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 72–75.
Federal Railroad Administration, 2009. Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Guidelines for High-Speed Passenger Rail.U.S. Department of Transportation.
Hauer, E., 2004. Statistical Road Safety Modeling.Transportation Research Record, 1897. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 81–87.
Hauer, E., Allery, B.K., Kononov, J., Griffith, M.S., 2002. Screening the road Network for Sites with Promise.Transportation Research Record, 1784. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 27-32.
Hauer, E., Allery, B.K., Kononov, J., Griffith, M.S., 2004. How Best to Rank Sites with Promise. Transportation Research Record, 1897. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 48– 54.
Horton, S., 2009. Success factors in the reduction of highway-rail grade crossing incidents.Volpe national transportation systems center.
Huang, B., 2011. Integrating Pavement Engineering and Road Geometric Factors into Traffic Safety Management for High Speed Facilities.The University of Tennessee.
Kononov, J., 2002. Identifying Locations with Potential for Accident Reductions: Use Of Direct Diagnostics and Pattern Recognition Methodologies.Transportation Research Record, 1784. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 153–158.
Lyon, C., Gotts, B., Wong, W.K.F., Persaud, B., 2007. Comparison of Alternative Methods for Identifying Sites with High Proportion of Specific Accident Types.Transportation Research Record, 2019. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 212–218.
Lyon, C., Persaud, B., 2008. Safety Effects of Targeted Program to Improve Skid Resistance.Transportation Research Record, 2068. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 135–140.
Hauer, E., Persaud, B.N., 1984. Problem of identifying hazardous locations using accident data.Transport. Res. Rec. 975, 36–43.
Hauer, E., NG, J.C.N., Lovell, J., 1988. Estimation of safety at signalized intersections.Transport. Res. Rec. 1185, 48–61.
Hauer, E., 1997. Observational Before-After Studies in Road Safety.Pergamon, Tarrytown, NY. Higle, J.L., Witkowski, J.M., 1988. Bayesian identification of hazardous locations.Transport. Res. Rec. 1185, 24–36.
Higle, J.L., Hecht, M.B., 1989. A comparison of techniques for the identification of hazardous locations.Transport. Res. Rec. 1238, 10–19.
Kelton, W.D., Sadowski, R.P., Sturrock, D.T., 2003. Simulation with Arena. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., NY.
Kononov, J., 2002. Identifying locations with potential for accident reductions: use of direct diagnostics and pattern recognition methodologies. In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1784. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 153–158.
Kononov, J., Allery, B.K., 2004. Explicit consideration of safety in transportation planning and project scoping. In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1897. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 116–125.
Kononov, J., Janson, B.N., 2002. Diagnostic methodology for the detection of safety problems at intersections. In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1784. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 51–56.
Kononov, J., Allery, B., 2003. Level of service of safety: conceptual blueprint and analytical framework. In: Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1840. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 57–66.
Masliah, M., Bahar, G., 2006.Using basic collision data to manage road safety. In: Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Charlottetown, PEI.
Masliah, M., Bahar, G., Clayton, R., Hall, R., 2006.Managing road using basic crash data. In: Traffic Records Forum Association of Traffic Safety Information Professionals, (ATSIP).
Mollet, C.J., 2004. Developing a traffic safety improvement program: a review and comparison of different screening network approaches. In: Presented at Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference XIV, Ottawa, Ontario.
Maher, M.J., Mountain, L.J., 1988. The identification of accident blackspots: a comparison of current methods. Accident Anal. Prevent. 20 (2), 143–151.
Multer, J., Raslear, Th., Yeh, M., 2012. Evaluating the Impact of Grade Crossing Safety Factors through Signal Detection Theory.Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomics society 56th annual meeting.
Miranda-Moreno, F., Fu, L., Ukkusuri, S., Lord, L., 2009. How to Incorporate Accident Severity and Vehicle Occupancy into the Hot Spot Identification Process? Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2102, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, D.C., 2009, pp. 53–60.
Monsere, C., Todd, J., Dixon, K., Zheng, J., Van Schalkwyk, I., 2011. Assessment of Statewide Intersection Safety Performance, Final Report, FHWA-OR-RD-18.Oregon Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.
Montella, A., 2010. A comparative analysis of hotspot identification methods. Accident Analysis and Prevention 42, 571–581.
Miranda-Moreno, F., Fu, L.,Eluru, N.,Bagheri, M., 2012. A latent class modeling approach for identifying vehicle driver injury severity factors at highway-railway crossings. Accident Analysis and Prevention.
Office of Railroad Safety, 2010. Railroad Trespassing, Vandalism, and Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Warning Device Violation Prevention Strategies. U.S. Department of Transportation.
Ogden, B., 2007. Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Handbook. Washington: Institute of Transportation Engineers.
Park, P., Parisien, J., Sahaji, R., Cozier, C., 2011. Development of geographic information system to identify potential high collision locations in Saskatoon. Saskatchewan Government Insurance, Interim Report.
Persaud, B., 2001. Statistical Methods in Highway Safety Analysis.NCHRP Synthesis 295.Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Nguyen, T., 1999.Empirical Bayes Procedure for Ranking Sites for Safety Investigation by Potential for Improvement.Transportation Research Record, 1665. TRB, National Research Council, Washington, DC, pp. 7–12.
Persaud, B.N., 1999. Empirical Bayes procedure for ranking sites for safety investigation by potential for safety improvement.Transport. Res. Rec. 1665, 7–12.
PIARC, World Road Association, Technical Committee on Road Safety C13, 2004.
TAC, Transportation Association of Canada, 2004. The Canadian Guide to In-Service Road Safety Reviews. Ottawa.
Sayed, T., Navin, F., Abdelwahab, W., 1997. A countermeasure based approach for identifying and treating accident prone locations. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 24, 683–691.
Saccomanno, F.F., Fu, L., Park, P., 2007. Decision support tool for prioritizing safety improvement programs at high-risk grade crossings. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering university of Waterloo.
Saccomanno, F.F., Park, P., Fu, L., 2007. Estimating countermeasure effects for reducing collisions at highway–railway grade crossings. Accident Analysis and Prevention 39 (2007) 406–416.
Yeh, M., Multer, J., 2008. Driver behavior at highway-railroad grade crossings: A literature review from 1990-2006. U.S. Department of Transportation.