pp. 155-166 | Article Number: iejme.2017.005
Published Online: May 09, 2017
Article Views: 54 | Article Download: 74
The relevance of cognitive conflict is the most controversial issue in mathematical geometry which becomes the most difficult unit to teach in all educational levels. Low mastery of geometry subject is not only identified among Indonesian student teachers but also those in some developed countries like the United States. This study investigates: The improvement of spatial visualization ability between students who are exposed to cognitive conflict strategy and those taught by expository seen from: overall student sample, and levels of prior mathematical knowledge. The interaction between learning types and categories of prior mathematical knowledge on the improvement of spatial visualization ability. The difficulties encountered by students in completing spatial visualization questions. This study used a mixed-method of experimental pre and posttest control group design that involved 73 student teachers at university in Bandung Indonesia as samples. Study findings show that: The mathematical spatial visualization ability of students who are exposed to cognitive conflict strategy has higher improvement level than students who are exposed to expiratory teaching based on overall and prior mathematical knowledge. There is an interaction between learning types and prior mathematical knowledge on the improvement of spatial visualization ability, thus students’ difficulties in completing the spatial visualization questions can be minimized. Unlike previous studies which claim that cognitive conflict occurs during cooperative collaboration, this study argues that such conflict happens at cooperative exploration stage.
Keywords: cognitive conflict strategy, spatial visualization, cooperative collaboration
Baddock, M., & Bucat, R. (2008). Effectiveness of a Classroom Chemistry Demonstration using the Cognitive www.ccsenet.org/ies International Education Studies Vol. 8, No. 13; 2015 77 Conflict Strategy. International Journal of Science Education, 30 (8), 1115-1128.
Battista, M. (1999). Fifth graders' enumeration of cubes in 3D arrays: Conceptual progress in inquiy based classroom. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 30(4), 417-448.
Ben-Chaim, David, Glenda Lappan and Richard T. Houang. (1988). The Effect of Instruction on Spatial Visualization Skills of Middle School Boys and Girls. American Educational Research Journal, 25 (1), 51-71.
Dahlan, J. A., dkk. (2012). Implementasi pembelajaran konflik kognitif dalam upaya meningkatkan high order mathematical thinking siswa. Jurnal Pendidikan, 13 (2), 65-76.
Diezmann, C.M, Watters, J. J, & English, L. D. (2001). Investigations as the basis for mathematical inquiry. Paper presented at the Ninth International Conference on Thinking, Auckland, New Zealand.
Downs, R. M., (2006). Learning to think spatially, Washington D C the National Academic Press.
Druyan, S. (2001). A comparison of four types of cognitive conflict and their effect on cognitive development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25 (4), 226–236.
Duval, R. (1998). Geometry from a cognitive point of view, In G. Mammana & V, Villani (Eds). “Perspectives on the teaching of geometri for the 2 Ist century” (pp. 37-52). Dordrecht. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
Filonovich, S.R. (2009). Life-long learning: consequences for higher education. Education issues, 4, 55-67.
Gredler, M. E. (1992). Designing and evaluating games and simulations. London: Kogan Page.
Hashweh, M. Z. (1986). Toward an explanation of conceptual change. European Journal of Science Education, 8 (3), 229-249.
Henningsen, M., & Stein, M. K. (1997). Mathematical tasks and student cognition: Classroom-based factors that support and inhibit high-level mathematical thinking and reasoning. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(5), 524-549.
Ismaimuja (2009). Kemampuan berfikir kritis dan kreatif matematis siswa SMP melalui pembelajaran berbasis masalah dengan strategi konflik kognitif. “Disertasi.” tidak diterbitkan. Pascasarjana UPI.
Ives, D, (2003). The Development of sevent graders conceptual understanding of geometry and spatial visualization abilities using mathematical representations with dynamic models. “Dissertation.” Montclair State University.
Kabaca, T., Karadag, Z., & Aktumen, M. (2011). Misconception, cognitive conflict and conceptual changes in geometry: A case study with pre-service teachers. Mevlana International Journal of Education (MIJE), 1 (2), 44-55.
Kwon, J. (1989). A cognitive model of conceptual change in science learning. Physics Teaching, 7, 1-9, Korean Physics Society.
Lam, S., Cheng, R., & Ma, W. K. (2009) Teacher and student intrinsic motivation inproject-based learning. Instructional Science: International Journal of the Learning Sciences, 37 (6), pp. 565-578.
Lappan, Fey, Fitsgerald, Friel, & Phillips. (2002). Getting to know connected mathematics. an implementation guide. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Lee, G, et al. (2003). Developmentof an instrument for measuring cognitive conflik in secondary-level science classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40 (6), 585-603.
Lee, G. & Kwon, J. (2001). What do you know about students’ cognitive conflict: A theoretical model of cognitive conflict process. Proceedings of 2001 AETS Annual meeting, Costa Mesa, CA, pp. 309–325.
Maron, A. I. (2016). Priorities of teaching mathematics in universities IEJME International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 11 (9), 3339-3350.
Masalimova, A. R., & Sabirova, L. L. (2014). Multi-dimensional classification of types and forms of corporate education. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 11, 1054-1058.
Nemeth, B. (2007). Measurement of the development of spatial ability by mental cutting test: “Annales mathematicae et informaticae.” (34), 123-128.
Niaz, M. (1995d). Cognitive conflict as a teaching strategy in solving chemistry problems: A dialectic-constructivist perspective. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32,959–970.
Nohda, N. (2000). Teaching by Open-Approach Method in Japanese Mathematics Classroom. In: Proceedings of the PME-24 Conference (eds. T. Nakahara & M. Koyama), Vol.1, 39–53. Hiroshima University (Japan
Pathare, S. R., Pardhan, H. C. (2011). Students’ understanding of thermal equilibrium, Proceedings of epi STEME-4. International conference to review research on science, technology and mathematics education, Macmillan publishers India Pvt. Ltd., 169.
Risma, D, A., Putri, R. I., Hartono, Y. (2013). On developing students spatial visualization ability. Journal International Education Studies, 6 (9), ISSN.1913-9020. E-ISSN 1913-9039. Canadian center of science and educations.
Shaidullina, A. R., Evsyukova N. Y., Mikhailov V. A., Gazizova F. S., Masalimova A. R., Khairullina E. R. & Galimzyanova I. I. (2015). The Curriculum Project on Professional and Pedagogical Teachers’ Communication Culture Formation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(2 S3), 202-208
Slavin, E. Roberts. (2010). Cooperative learning teori, riset, dan praktik cetakan viii. Bandung: Nusa Media.
Suryadi, D. (2012). Membangun budaya baru dalam berpikir matematika. Bandung: Rizqi Press.
Sutawijaya, A. & Dahlan, J. A. (2010). Model-model pembelajaran matematika. Modul UT: Jakarta.
Swafford, J. O., Jones, G. A., Thornton, C.A. (1997). Increased knowledge in geometry and instructional practice. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28 (4), pp. 467 – 483. Reston : NCTM.
Watson. (2002). Creating cognitive conflict in a-controlled research setting: Sampling. Web: http://www.stat.auckland.ac.nz/iase/publication/1/6a1_wats.pdf.