International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education

The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 2017 - Volume 12 Issue 2, pp. 193-215
  • Published Online: 11 May 2017
  • Article Views: 919 | Article Download: 1647
  • Open Access Full Text (PDF)
AMA 10th edition
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Warner S, Kaur A. The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model. Int Elect J Math Ed. 2017;12(2), 193-215.
APA 6th edition
In-text citation: (Warner & Kaur, 2017)
Reference: Warner, S., & Kaur, A. (2017). The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 12(2), 193-215.
Chicago
In-text citation: (Warner and Kaur, 2017)
Reference: Warner, Steve, and Abtar Kaur. "The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education 2017 12 no. 2 (2017): 193-215.
Harvard
In-text citation: (Warner and Kaur, 2017)
Reference: Warner, S., and Kaur, A. (2017). The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 12(2), pp. 193-215.
MLA
In-text citation: (Warner and Kaur, 2017)
Reference: Warner, Steve et al. "The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model". International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, vol. 12, no. 2, 2017, pp. 193-215.
Vancouver
In-text citation: (1), (2), (3), etc.
Reference: Warner S, Kaur A. The Perceptions of Teachers and Students on a 21st Century Mathematics Instructional Model. Int Elect J Math Ed. 2017;12(2):193-215.

Abstract

Facilitating learning at all levels of the education stratum to create effective 21st Century knowledge creators, inventors and innovative workers is increasingly recognized today as a primary objective of education. Presently, the rapid expansion and availability of knowledge indicates the importance of curriculum and instructions that will empower learners to process knowledge using learner centered strategies rather than merely memorizing facts infused by facilitators. The study applied a qualitative research design. Interviews were completed on teachers and students to determine their perceptions on the effectiveness of the 2T2C model. Teachers’ perceptions indicated that they gained a better perspective from the teaching and learning classroom environment; high-order questioning and thinking were accomplished; the relationship between mathematics through real-world questions was realized by students; communication improved through planned cooperative and collaboration sessions; the use of technology as a resource both in and out of class provided a framework for communication and thinking; and students’ confidence and self-efficacy improved as they took responsibility for their learning. This paper presents how the 2T2C Model was conceptualized and reports on teachers’ and students’ perceptions on the model.

References

  • Anderson, L., & Krathwohl, D. (Eds.). (2001). Taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A Revision of bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman
  • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
  • Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Clinical and Social Psychology, 4, 259-373.
  • Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.
  • Banikowski, K. (1999). Strategies to enhance memory based on brain-research. Accessed December 2013 from http://sc-boces.org/english/IMC/Focus/Memory_strategies2.pdf
  • Barahal, S. (2008). Thinking about thinking: Pre-service teachers strengthen their thinking artfully. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(4), 298-302.
  • Barriball, K., & While, A. (1994). Collecting Data using a semi‐structured interview: A discussion paper. Journal of advanced nursing, 19(2), 328-335.
  • Beers, S. (2011). 21st century skills: Preparing students for their future. Accessed July 2014 from https://www.mheonline.com/mhmymath/pdf/21st_century_skills.pdf
  • Bellanca, J. & Brandt, R. (2010). 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn. United Kingdom: Solution Tree Press.
  • Brookhart, S. (2010). How to assess higher-order thinking skills in your classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD
  • Campbell, C. (1997). Endless education: main currents in the education system of modern Trinidad and Tobago 1939-1986. Jamaica: The University Press Mona.
  • Charles, R. & Lester, F. (1982). Teaching problem solving: What, why and how. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Pub.
  • Costa, A. (2001). Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking (3rd ed.). Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Curriculum Division and Planning (Ed.) (2011). The ministry of education strategic plan. Available online at http://www.moe.gov.tt/strategic_plan.html
  • De Lisle, J., Seecharan, H. & Ayodike, A. (2009). Is the Trinidad and Tobago education system structured to facilitate optimum human capital development? New findings on the relationship between education structures and outcomes from national and international assessments. Available online at http://sta.uwi.edu/conferences/09/salises/documents/J%20De%20Lisle.pdf
  • Friedman, T. (2005). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Pan Books Limited.
  • Friedman, T. (2007). The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Pan Books Limited.
  • Georgia State Department of Education. (2006). 2006 CRCT system and school aggregate scores. Available online at http://public.doe.k12.ga.us/pea_communications.aspx ?ViewMode=1&obj=1187
  • Gordon, D. (2011). Return to Sender. T.H.E. Journal, 38(3), 30-32. Available online at https://edsaebscohostcom.libproxy.chapman.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid= 4554a3d1-69ee-4a4181e515cd9bf1c279%40sessionmgr4004&vid=15&hid=4111
  • Gredler, M. E. (1997). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Greenstein, L. (2012). Assessing 21st century skills: A guide to evaluating mastery and authentic learning. California: Thousand Oaks Publishers.
  • Herbert, S. (2004). Learning from assessment experiences from a cross-cultural unit of work in science. Evaluation & Research in Education, 18(3), 139-157.
  • Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Accessed February 2014 from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/infoproc.html
  • Hyslop, A. (2011). CTE and 21st century skills in college and career readiness. Techniques: Connecting Education & Careers, 86(3), 10-11. Available online at 125 https://eds-a-ebscohost-com.libproxy.chapman.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?
  • Jacobs, H. (2010). Curriculum 21: Essential education for a changing world. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD.Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. (1983). Learning Together and Alone. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1991). Learning together and alone: cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall
  • Jonassen, D., Howland, J., Marra, R., & Crismond, D. (2008). Meaningful learning with technology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
  • Joyce, B. R., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. (2009). Models of Teaching (9th ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn & Bacon. Joyce, B. R., Calhoun, R., & Hopkins, D. (1997). Models of Learning: Tools for teaching. United Kingdom: Open University Press.
  • Kaur, A. (2001). Design and evaluation of a web-based constructivist learning environment for primary school students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Malaya.
  • Marzano, R, et al. (1988). Dimensions of thinking: A framework for curriculum and instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Mastropieri, M., Scruggs, T., Spencer, V., & Fontana, J. (2003). Promoting success in high school world history: Peer tutoring versus guided notes. Learning Disabilities Research and Practices, 18, 52-65.
  • Nitko, A., & Brookhart, S. (2007). Educational assessment of students. London: Pearson.
  • Norris, S. P. , & Ennis, R. H. (1989). Evaluating critical thinking. Pacific Grove, CA: Midwest Publications.
  • Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2009). Framework for 21st Century Learning. In Partnership for 21stCentury Skills. Accessed July 2012 from http://www.p21.org/.
  • Phillips, V., & Wong, C. (2010). Tying together the common core of standards, instruction, and assessments. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(5), 37-42. Available online at https://edsaebscohostcom.libproxy.chapman.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid= 4554a3d1-69ee-4a4181e515cd9bf1c279%40sessionmgr4004&vid=21&hid=4111
  • Piaget, J. (1928). Judgment and reasoning in the child. Paterson, NJ: Littlefield, Adams & Co
  • Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. London: Routledge.
  • Ravitch, D. (2010). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York: Basics Books.
  • Regan, B. (2008). Why we need to teach 21stcentury skills -and how to do it. Retrieved
  • from http:// www.mmischools.com/ Articles/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=13809
  • Resnick, L. (1987). Education and learning to think. National Academy Press.Sadker, M. P. & Sadker, D. M. (2000). Teachers, Schools, and Society. New York: McGraw-Hill
  • Schmalz, R. (1973). Categorization of questions that mathematics teachers ask. Mathematics Teacher, 66(7), 619-626.
  • Secondary Education Modernization Programme (SEMP). (2002). Mathematics school curriculum, form 1-3. Trinidad and Tobago. Ministry of Education, Curriculum Development Division.
  • Senk, S., Beckmann, C., & Thompson, D. (1997). Assessment and grading in high school mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 28(2), 187-215
  • Slavin, R. (1982). Combining cooperative learning and individualized instruction: Effects on student mathematics achievement, attitudes and behaviors. Available online at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED220343.pdf
  • Slavin, R. (1995). A model of effective instruction. The Educational Forum, 59, 166-176
  • Stein, M., & Lane, S. (1996). Instructional tasks and the development of student capacity  to think and reason: An analysis of the relationship between teaching and learning in a reform mathematics project. Educational Research and Evaluation, 2(1), 50-80.
  • Thompson, T. (2011). An analysis of higher-order thinking on algebra I end-of course tests. Accessed March 2012 from http://www.cimt.plymouth. ac.uk/journal/ thompson.pdf
  • Trybus, M. (2013). Preparing for the future of education--Equipping students with 21st century skills: An interview with Dr. Robin Fogarty. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 80(1), 10-15. Available online at https://edsaebscohostcom.libproxy.chapman.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=4554a3d1-69ee-4a4181e515cd9bf1c279%40sessionmgr4004&vid=27&hid=4111
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L.S. (1981). The genesis of higher mental functions. In J.V. Wertsch (ed.). The Concept of Activity in Soviet Psychology (pp.144-188). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
  • Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap: Why even our best schools don’t teach the new survival skills our children need and what we can do. New York: Basic Books.
  • Warner, S. (2015). The effects of a new instructional model 2T2C in infusing 21st century skills in secondary mathematics teaching. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Open University Malaysia.
  • Wenglisky, H. (1998). Does it compute? The relationship between educational technology and student achievement in mathematics. Available online at http//www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/PICTECHNOLOG.pdf

License

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.