(2017)
(2017)
(2017)
(2017)
(2017)
(2017)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
(2016)
1 
Mathematics Learning Model of Open Problem Solving to Develop Students’ CreativityKetut Suastika
pp. 569577  Article Number: iejme.2017.031
Abstract The purpose of this research is to produce an open problem solving mathematics learning model to help students develop their creativity which meets the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The components of instruction model used adopt Joyce and Weil. The quality of the developed products was evaluated based on the product development evaluation developed by Neeven, which includes validity by validators, practicality, and the effectiveness of field experiment by observers. The syntax realization of model consisted of five phases, namely: (1) Introduction, (2) Concept tracking, (3) Open problem presentation, (4) Work presentation, and (5) Closing. The model that had been declared valid by the validator was then tested to see the practicality and effectiveness. The practicality and effectiveness of the model were obtained after three trials. The process of model development is based on the theory of development of Plomp, which consists of three phases, namely: (1) preliminary research, (2) prototyping phase, and (3) assessment phase. The development result of this study is an open problem solving math learning model that can develop students’ creativity (PMT Model), which meets valid, practical, and effective criteria Keywords: Development, Learning Model of open Problem Solving, Creativity References Forrester, J.C. 2008. Thinking Creatively ; Thinking Critically. Asian Social Science, 4 (5): 100105, Hashimoto, Y. 1997. The Method of Fostering Creativity Through Mathematical Problem Solving. International Reviews on Mathematical Education,3 (29): 8687 Izzati, N. 2009. Berpikir Kreatif dan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematis: Apa, Mengapa, dan Bagaimana Mengembangkannya Pada Peserta Didik. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Matematika dan Pendidikan Matematika, Bandung 19 Desember 2009, hal: 4960, Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Calhoun, E. 2009. Models of Teaching, Eighth Edition. Boston : Allyn and Bacon. Kontoyianni, K., Kattou, M., PittaPantazi, D.& Christou, C. 2013. Integrating mathematical abilities and creativity in the assessment of mathematical giftedness. Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling. 55 (3): 289315. Mann, E. L. 2009. The Search for Mathematical Creativity: Identifying Creative Potential in Middle School Students. Creativity Research Journal. 21(4), 338–348. Monahan, T. 2002. The DoItYourself Lobotomy: Open Your Mind to Greater Creative Thinking. New York: Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Nadjafikhah, M., Yaftian, N., Bakhshalizadeh, S. 2012. Mathematical Creativity : Some Definitions and Characteristic. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. 31 (2012): 285 – 291. NCTM. 2000. Priciples and Standards for School Mathematics. Copyright by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191–9988. Neeveen., N., Folmer, E. 2007. Educational Design Research. Dalam Plomp, T.&Neeven, N. (Eds), Formative Evaluation in Educational Design Research. Proceedings of the seminar conducted at the East China Normal University, Shanghai (PR China), November 23 – 26, 2007. Paparan Wamendikbud Bidang Pendidikan: Konsep dan Implementasi Kurikulum 2013. Pehkonen, E. 2007. Problem Solving in Mathematics Education in Finland. Finland: University of Helsinki Finland. Permendikbud no 65 tahun 2013 tentang Standar Proses Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Plomp, T. 2007. Educational Design Research. Dalam Plomp, T.&Neeven, N. (Eds), Educational Design Research: An Introduction. Proceedings of the seminar conducted at the East China Normal University, Shanghai (PR China), November 23 – 26, 2007. Sharp, C. 2004. Developing young children’s creativity: what can we learn from research? Siswono, T.E.Y. 2007. Pembelajaran Matematika Humanistik yang Mengembangkan Kreativitas Siswa. Makalah disampaikan pada Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Matematika “Pembelajaran Matematika yang Memanusiakan Manusia” di Program Studi Pendidikan Matematika FKIP Universitas Sanata Dharma. Yogyakarta, 29–30 Agustus 2007. Stenberg, R. 2006. The Nature of Creativity. Creativity Research Journal. 18(1): 87–98. 
View Abstract References Full text PDF 
2 
The Use of Mathematical Module Based on Constructivism Approach as Media to Implant the Concept of Algebra OperationJazim, Rahmad Bustanul Anwar & Dwi Rahmawati
pp. 579583  Article Number: iejme.2017.032
Abstract Mathematical learning to implant the concept of algebra operation using constructivism approach is very important. Students should be actively involved in the process of building their understanding, so meaningful learning experiences can be to gained. This research was an experimental research involving 91 students of grade 8. This research applied constructivismbased mathematics module used by the students during studying the concept of algebra operation. The result showed that the use of constructivism based mathematics module was very effective in improving students' mathematical understanding on algebra operation material. This result was obtained by performing the initial test (pretest) before the use of modules and final test (posttest) after the use of module. Addition, the result of observation conducted during the learning activities showed that in the use of modules in learning mathematics, students with high academic ability tended to be more active in the discussion process. Keywords: module, constructivism approach, algebra operation References AnnSofi RöjLindberg. (2001). Active Learning of Mathematics. Experiential Learning for the Third Millenium. Vol. 2, 159168. Berger, M. (2005). Vygotsky’s Theory of Concept Formation and Mathematics Education. Proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 2, pp. 153160. Bhowmik, M. (2014). Constructivism approach in mathematics teaching and assessment of mathematical understanding. Basic Research Journal of Education Research and Review ISSN 23156872 Vol. 4(1) pp. 0812 January 2015. Major, T. E., Mangope, B. (2012). The Constructivist Theory in Mathematics: The Case of Botswana Primary Schools. International Review of Social Sciences and Humanities Vol. 3, No. 2 (2012), pp. 139147. Mousley, J. (2005). What Does Mathematics Understanding Look Like? The Annual Conference held at RMIT. NCTM. (2000). Principles and Standars for School Mathematics. United States of America: The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc. Pepin, B. & Haggarty, L. (2005). Making Connections and Seeking Understanding. Sato, Manabu. (2007). Tantangan yang Harus Dihadapi Guru. Dalam Bacaan Rujukan untuk Lesson Study: Sistems (Strengthening Inservice Training of Mathematics and Science Education at Junior Secondary Level). Dirjen PMPTKDepdiknas dan JICA. Star, J. R., Caronongan, P., Foegen, A., Furgeson, J., Keating, B., Larson, M. R., Lyskawa, J., McCallum, W. G., Porath, J., & Zbiek, R. M. (2015). Teaching strategies for improving algebra knowledge in middle and high school students (NCEE 20144333). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from the NCEE website: http://whatworks.ed.gov. Stylianides, A.J. & Stylianides, G.J. (2007). Learning Mathematics with Understanding: A Critical Consideration of the Learning Principle in the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, (Online), 103114, Winkel. (2009). Psikologi Pengajaran. Yogyakarta : Media Abadi. Watson, A. (2007). Key Understandings in Mathematics Learning. Paper 6: Algebraic reasoning. University of Oxford. 
View Abstract References Full text PDF 
3 
The Analysis of the Problem of Economic Mathematical Problems Reversed from the Ability of Logic Thinking in StudentsWahyuddin
pp. 585598  Article Number: iejme.2017.033
Abstract This study aims to determine the level of logical thinking skills of solving ability on math problem of the economy, and the effect on the ability of logical thinking ability in solving mathematical economics at Mathematics Education students Muhammadiyah University Makassar. This research is an expost facto nature of causality with total population were 245 people from 8 different classes. Samples invoved 58 students consisting of 2 classes using a sampling technique . The research instrument consists of logical thinking ability test as many as 30 items and problem solving test ability by 5 items were valid and reliable before use. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (correlation and regression analysis). The research findings shows that: (1) The ability to think logically masiswa are in good enough category with an average value of 69.13; (2) The level of mathematical problem solving ability for masiswa economy is in the category quite well with the average value of 74.03; (3) The level of logical thinking ability masiswa correlated with mathematical problem solving ability with great economy of 94.5% relationship where that is located on a well once; and (5) the ability to think logically positive effect on the ability of solving problems with the effect of 89.1% while the remaining 10.9% is influenced by other variables outside the model. On conslusion, the ability to think logically positive effect on the ability of settlement capability, it can be concluded that the higher of logical thinking skills possessed by the student means the student problemsolving abilities are higher. Keywords: Logical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving Ability, Mathematical Economics References Albrecht, K. (2009). Logical Thinking. http://www.audiblox2014.com/. Alexander, K.D. (2007). Effect of Intruction in Creative Problem Solving on Cognition, Creativity, and Satisfaction among Ninth Grade Students in An Introduction to World Agricultural Science and Technology Course. Dissertation. The Graduate Faculty of Texas Teach University. (Online) Tersedia: http://www.scirus.com. Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2002). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta. Bancong, H. (2013). Profil Penalaran Logis Berdasarkan Gaya Berpikir dalam Memecahkan Masalah Fisika Peserta Didik. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia. 2 (2), hlm. 195202. ISSN: 23391286. Diakses di http ://journal.unnes.ac.id /nju/index.php/jpii. Cambell, Linda. (2006). Metode Praktis pembelajaran Berbasis Multiple Intelligences. Depok : Insuisi Press. CUPM (2004). Undergrad uate Program and Course in the Mathematical Sciences: CUPM Curriculum Guide. The Mathematical Association of America. Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. (2005). UndangUndang Nomor 14 Tahun 2005, Tentang Guru dan Dosen, Jakarta: Depdiknas. Fachrurrozie. (2009). Eams Games Tournament Sebagai Upaya Peningkatan Kemampuan Belajar Mahasiswa Pada Mata Kuliah Matematika Ekonomi. Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi. 4 (1), hlm. 5168. ISSN: 2541562X. Diakses di http://id.portalgaruda.org/?ref=browse&mod=viewarticle&article=136358. Hoerr, Thomas. R. (2007) Buku Kerja Multiple Intelle Gences : Pengalaman New City School di St. Louis, Missouri, As, Dalam Menghargai Aneka Kecerdasan Anak. Bandung : Mizan Media Utama. Kisworo, A. (2000). Pembelajaran Pemecahan Masalah pada Pembelajaran Geometri di Kelas I SMU Petra 5 Surabaya. Tesis. Surabaya : PPS Universitas Negeri Surabaya. Matlin, M.W. (2003). Cognition. Fifth Edition. New York : John Wiley & Son.Inc Maharani, Swasti. (2013). Profil Berpikir Logis Mahasiswa Calon Guru Matematika dalam Menyelesaikan Luas Daerah dengan Menggunakan Integral Lipat Dua. Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Matematika. 2 (1), hlm. 16. ISSN : 23017929. Diakses di http://ejournal.ikippgrimadiun.ac.id/index.php/jipm/index. Nazan, Sezen, (2011). A scale on logical thinking abilities. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences. 15 (2011), hlm. 2476–2480 NCTM. (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics . Virginia: NCTM, Inc Nelvin, Nool. R. (2012). Effectiveness of an Improvised Abacus in Teaching Addition of Integers. Journal of International Conference on Education and Management Innovation IPEDR..30 (2012), hal 307311. Diakses di http://www.ipedr.com/vol30/60ICEMI%202012M10060.pdf. Priatna, N. (2003). Kemampuan Penalaran dan Pemahaman Matematika Siswa Kelas 3 Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertama Negeri di Kota Bandung. Disertasi Doktor. PPS UPI Bandung: tidak diterbitkan. Ruseffendi, E.T. (2006). Pengantar Kepada Membantu Guru Mengembangkan Kompetensinya dalam Pengajaran Matematika untuk Meningkatkan CBSA. Bandung: Tarsito. Saragih, Sahat. (2006). Menumbuhkembangkan Berpikir Logis dan Sikap Positif terhadap Matematika Melalui Pendekatan Matematika Realistik. Jurnal pendidikan dan kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan, Edisi Juli 2006. Saragih, S. (2011). Menumbuh Kembangkan Berpikir Logis dan Sikap Positif Terhadap Matematika Melalui Pendekatan Matematika Realistik. Diakses di. www. Scribd. Com/ doc /4674 9184/aretical. Diakses pada 15 Oktber 2016. Scusa, T. and Yuma, C.O. (2008). Five Processes Of Mathematical Thinking: Math in the Middle Institute Partnership. University Of Nebraska Lincoln: Summative Projects For Ma Degree Siswono, Tatag. (2004). Identifikasi Proses Berpikir Kreatif Siswa dalam Pengajuan Masalah (Problem Posing) Matematika Berpandu dengan Model Wallas dan Creative Problem Solving (CPS). Buletin Pendidikan Matematika. 6 (2), hlm. 116. Diakses di https://tatagyes.files.wordpress.com/2009/11/paper04_wallascps1.pdf. Sumarmo, U. (2000). Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Matematika untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Inteleqtual Tingkat Tinggi Siswa Sekolah Dasar. Laporan Penelitian FPMIPA IKIP Bandung. Tidak diterbitkan. Sumarmo, U (1994). Suatu Alternatif Pengajaran untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Matematika pada Guru dan Siswa SMP. Bandung: Pendidikan Matematika FPMIPA Bandung. Suriasumantri, J.S. (2009). Filsafat Ilmu Sebagai Pengantar Populer . Jakarta : Pustaka Sinar Harapan. Utari, Sumarmo. (2003). Berpikir dan Disposisi Matematik: Apa, Mengapa, dan Bagaimana dikembangkan pada Siswa Sekolah Dasar dan Menengah. Bandung: ITB. Walle, John A. Van De. (2008). Sekolah Dasar dan Menengah Matematika Pengembangan Pengajaran . Jakarta: Erlangga. Van De Walle, John A. (2003). Pengembangan Pengajaran Matematika. Jakarta: Erlangga. 
View Abstract References Full text PDF 
4 
Gender Stereotype and Motivation in Learning Statistics among Tertiary Students in GhanaYarhands Dissou Arthur, Samuel AsieduAddo & Simon Kojo Appiah
pp. 599608  Article Number: iejme.2017.034
Abstract The present study has presented the effect of gender on tertiary students’ motivation, feeling of competence, relatedness and autonomy. The survey consists of cohort samples of 251 males and 78 females from tertiary institutions in Ghana. Nonparametric chisquare test of independence was used to assess the effect of gender on students’ motivation in learning statistics. The study results have indicated that students’ gender have no influence on the selfdetermination of student to learn statistics. The paper further revealed that students’ gender has no significant influence on the tertiary students’ need for competence, relatedness and autonomy. This study has established the fact that the tertiary students’ need for autonomy, relatedness and competence in learning statistics is independent of the students’ gender. Keywords: Relatedness, students’ motivation, competence, Ghana, statistics References Arthur, Y. D., AseiduAddo, S. & Annan, J. (2015). Student mathematics interest in Ghana: The role of parent interest, gender, basic school attended and fear of basic school mathematics teacher. Advances in Research, 5(5), 1–8. Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M. & Oettingen, G. (2010). Motivation. Handbook of Social Psychology, 2, 268–316. Brown, L. I. & Kanyongo, G. Y. (2010). Gender differences in performance in Mathematics in Trinidad and Tobago:Examining affective factors. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 5, 113–130. Deci, E. L. (1992). The relation of interest to the motivation of behavior: A selfdetermination theory perspective. In The Role of Interest in Learnig and Development (pp. 43–70). Deci, E. L. & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “ What ” and “ Why ” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the SelfDetermination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268. Deci, E., Vallerand, R., Pelletier, L., & Ryan, R. (1991). Motivation and Education: The SelfDetermination Perspective. Educational Psychologist, 26(3), 325–346. Eccles, J., Adler, T. F., Futterman, R., Goff, S. B., Kaczala, C. M. & Meece, J. et al. (1983). Expectancies, values and academic behaviors. In J. T. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives: Psychological and Sociological Approaches (pp. 75–146). San Francisco,: Freeman. Fredricks, J. A. & Eccles, J. S. (2002). Children’s competence and value beliefs from childhood through adolescence: Growth trajectories in two malesextyped domains. Developmental Psychology, 38(4), 519–533. Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., Pekrun, R. & Watt, H. M. G. (2010). Development of Mathematics Interest in Adolescence: Influences of Gender, Family, and School Context. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 20(2), 507–537. Gottfried, A. E., Fleming, J. S. & Gottfried, A. W. (1994). Role of parental motivational practices in children’s academic intrinsic motivation and achievement. Journal of Educational, 86, 104–113. Gottfried, A. E., Marcoulides, G. a, Gottfried, A. W., & Oliver, P. H. (2013). Longitudinal Pathways from Math Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement to Math Course Accomplishments and Educational Attainment. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 6(1), 118131. Hannula, M. S. (2006). Motivation in mathematics: Goals reflected in emotions. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 63(2), 165–178. Harackiewicz, J. M., Barron, K. E., Carter, S. M., Lehto, A. T. & Elliot, A. J. (1997). Predictors and consequences of achievement goals in the college classroom: Maintaining interest and making the grade. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(6), 1284–1295. Honicke, T. & Broadbent, J. (2016). The influence of academic selfefficacy on academic performance: A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 17, 6384. Ijaz, M. A. (1975). Motivating students. Physics Today, 28(12), 6061. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3069253 Jabor, M. K., Machtmes, K., Buntat, Y. & Kungu, K. (2011). The Influence of Age and Gender on the Students ’ Achievement in Mathematics. In International Conference on Social Science and Humanity, 5, 304–308. Kenrick, D. T., Neuberg, S. L., Griskevicius, V., Becker, D. V. & Schaller, M. (2010). GoalDriven Cognition and Functional Behavior: The FundamentalMotives Framework. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(1), 63–67. Krapp, A. (2005). Basic needs and the development of interest and intrinsic motivational orientations. Learning and Instruction, 15(5), 381–395. Lindberg, S. M., Hyde, J. S., Petersen, J. L., & Linn, M. C. (2010). New trends in gender and mathematics performance: A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(6), 1123–1135. Lubienski, S., Robinson, J., Crane, C. & Ganley, C. (2013). Girls’ and Boys' Mathematics Achievement, Affect, and Experiences: Findings from the ECLSK. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 44(4), 634–645. Pantziara, M. & Philippou, G. N. (2014). Students’ Motivation in the Mathematics Classroom. Revealing Causes and Consequences. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(2), 1–27. Reeve, J. & Lee, W. (2014). Students’ classroom engagement produces longitudinal changes in classroom motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(2). 178189. Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67. Ryan, R. M., & Lynch, J. H. (1989). Emotional Autonomy Versus Detachment : Revisiting the Vicissitudes of Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Child Development, 60, 340–356. Skaalvik, S., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2004). Gender Differences in Math and Verbal SelfConcept, Performance Expectations, and Motivation. Sex Roles, 50(3), 241–252. Stevens, T., Olivarez, A., Lan, W. Y., & TallentRunnels, M. K. (2004). The Journal of Educational Research Role of Mathematics SelfEfficacy and Motivation in Mathematics Performance Across Ethnicity. The Journal of Educational Research, 974, 208–222. Van De Gaer, E., Pustjens, H., Van Damme, J. & De Munter, A. (2008). Mathematics participation and mathematics achievement across secondary school: The role of gender. Sex Roles, 59(78), 568–585. Wang, M.T. (2012). Educational and career interests in math: A longitudinal examination of the links between classroom environment, motivational beliefs, and interests. Developmental Psychology, 48(6), 1643–1657.

View Abstract References Full text PDF 
5 
Characteristics of Students Sensory Mathematical Imagination in Solving Mathematics ProblemTeguh Wibowo, Akbar Sutawidjaja, Abdur Rahman As’ari, I Made Sulandra
pp. 609619  Article Number: iejme.2017.035
Abstract This study aim to investigate the characteristics of students’ sensory mathematical imagination of in solving mathematics problems. This study includes qualitative research with two students of VIII grade junior high school used as subjects. To determine the characteristics of students sensory mathematical imagination who appeared in solving mathematics problems, researchers use the problem sheet as a supporting instrument in this study. The problem sheet consists of a question item that serves to stimulate appear of students sensory mathematical imagination. For accuracy of data using triangulation method of observation, students answers, and interviews. The results showed characteristics of students sensory mathematical imagination in solving mathematics problems is appear of the idea based on perception due to stimulate of the problem, actualization information by analogy according to what people think, the activity involves body movement (sensory motor), can be seen through visual representation. Keywords: Perception; sensory mathematical imagination References Carroll, M., Goldman, S., Britos, L., Koh, J., Adam, R., and Hornstein, M. (2010). Destination, Imagination and the Fires Within: Design Thinking in a Middle School Classroom. Journal Compilation ©, NSEAD/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Chapman, O. (2008). Imagination as a Tool in Mathematics Teacher Education. Journal Mathematics Teacher Education, 11, 83–88. Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitaive and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: Saga Publication. Currie, G. & Ravenscroft, I. (2002). Recreative Minds: Imagination in Philosophy and Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ferrara, F. (2006). Remembering and Imagining: Moving back and forth between motion and its representation. Proceedings of the Thirtieth Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, (Vol.3, pp.65–72). Prague: Charles University. Kotsopoulos, D. & Cordy, M. (2009). Investigating Imagination as a Cognitive Space for Learning Mathematics. Educ Stud Math, 70, 259–274, DOI 10.1007/s 1064900891540. Muir, T., Beswick, K., Williamson, J. (2008). “I’m not very good at solving problems”: An exploration of students’ problem solving behaviours. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 27, 228–241. Nemirovsky, R. & Ferrara, F. (2008). Mathematical Imagination and Embodied Cognition. Journal Educational Studies in Mathematics, 70, 159–174. Samli, A.C. (2011). From Imagination to Creativity. From Imagination to Innovation: New Product Development for Quality of Life, DOI 10.1007/9781461408543_2, © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Solso, R., Maclin, O. & Maclin, M. (2008). Psikologi Kognitif Edisi Kedelapan. Jakarta: Erlangga. Swirski, T. (2010). Unleashing the imagination in learning, teaching and assessment: design perspectives, innovative practices and meaning making. Ph.D candidate, Macquarie University. van Alphen, P. (2011). Imagination as a transformative tool in primary school education. RoSE  Research on Steiner Education, 2 (2), ISSN 18916511. Wibowo, T. and As'ari, A.R. (2014). Type Imagination Student Mathematical In Mathematical Problem Solving. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Education Mathematics II. Math P4TK Yogyakarta. Wilke, J. (2010). Using Imagination in the Math Classroom. Journal of Educational Perspectives, 39(2).

View Abstract References Full text PDF 
6 
Students’ Reflective Abstraction in Solving Number Sequence ProblemsMohammad Djasuli, Cholis Sa’dijah, I Nengah Parta, Tjang Daniel Chandra
pp. 621632  Article Number: iejme.2017.036
Abstract This study is qualitative in nature, aims to describe students’ reflective abstraction in solving problems related to number sequence. As subjects of this study are 6 students, composed of 3 students (2 female and one male) from State Senior High School (SMAN) 1 Pasuruan, and 3 students (2 male and 1 female) from SMAN 1 Pandaan, East Java, Indonesia. In this study, the researchers were acted as human instruments. Narrative description was compiled by assembling descriptions of reflective abstraction stages associated with the criteria of high, intermediate, or low thinking processes, and the cognitive levels including knowledge application and reasoning. The results suggest that students’ strategies of problem solving are not directly proportional to their level of reflective abstraction. It was also found that students’ reflective abstraction furnish students’ individually unique solution, simply complicated, while interventions are important in its attainments. Keywords: Stages and levels of reflective abstraction, high school students, number sequence References Abrahamson, D. (2006). Exposing Piaget’s Scheme: Empirical Evidence for the Ontogenesis of Coordination in Learning a Mathematical Concept. University of California, Berkeley. Belbase, S. (2010). A Reflective Journey through Theory and Research in Mathematical Learning and Development. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED514497.pdf Beth, E. W., & Piaget, J. (1966). Mathematical Epistemology and Psychology. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: D. Reidel. Bowie, L. 1998. A Learning Theory Approach to Students’ Misconceptions in Calculus. Thesis. University of Cape Town, South Africa. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/ handle/11427/9556/thesis_sci_1998_bowie_l.pdf?sequence=1 Carter, P. & Russel, K. (2004). The Complete Book of Fun Maths, 250 Confidence Boosting Tricks, Test and Puzzles. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from http://as.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd0470870915.html Clark, D.A. (2014). The Wiley Handbook of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. First Edition. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Copley, J. (2013). Mathematical Thinking. Retrieved from http://images.pearsonclinical.com/images/ Assets/WSS_5/Research Summary_Mathematical_Thinking_FNL.pdf Creswell, J.W. (2014). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Fourth Edition. Sage Publications. Chrisopher, J.C. & Campbell, R.L. (2008). An InteractivistHermeneutic Metatheory for Positive Psychology. Theory & Psychology. Vol. 18(5), 675–697. Sage Publications. DOI: 10.1177/ 0959354308093401 Retrieved from http://tap.sagepub.com. Dubinsky, Ed. (1992). Reflective Abstraction in Advanced Mathematical. In Advanced Mathematical Thinking. David Tall (ed), 95123. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher. Ferrari, P.L. (2003). Abstraction in Mathematics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Vol. 358(1435): 1225–1230. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2003.1316 Glasersfeld, Ernst von. (1991). Abstraction, RePresentation, and Reflection. In Epistemological foundations of mathematical experience. L.P. Steffe (Ed). New York, NY: Springer. Goedecke, J. (2013). Abstraction in Mathematics. A course material on powerpoint file. Queen’s College. Retrieved from https://www.dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~jg352/pdf/TMSTalk.pdf Gray, E. & Tall, D. (2001). Relationships between Embodied Objects and Symbolic Procepts: An Explanatory Theory of Success and Failure in Mathematics. Retrieved from http://homepages.warwick.ac.uk/staff/David.Tall/pdfs/dotpme25pintotall.pdf Hazzan, O & Zazkis, R. (2005). Reducing Abstraction: The Case of School Mathematics. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/~zazkis/publications/Reducing%20Abstraction.pdf Kasali, R. (2006). Change! Cetakan ke delapan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Kumar, R. (2011). Research Methodology: a stepbystep guide for beginners. Third Edition. Sage Publications, Inc. Marlow, E. (1990). Psychological Foundations in Teaching Mathematics. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED431606.pdf Mason, J., Burton, L. & Stacey, K. (2010), Thinking Mathematically. Second Edition. England: Pearson Education Limited. Michelmore, M & White, P. (2004). Abstraction in Mathematics and Mathematics Learning. In Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Vol 3, 329–336. Retrieved from https://www.emis.de/ proceedings/PME28/RR/RR031_Mitchelmore.pdf Mitchelmore, M. & White, P. (2007). Abstraction in Mathematics Learning. In Mathematics Education Research Journal. Vol 19(2), 19. Mousoulides, N. & Gagatsis, A. (2004). Algebraic and Geometry. Approach in Function Problem Solving. Retrieved from http:// files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED489596.pdf Ozmantar, F. M. & Monaghan, J. (2007). A Dialectical Approach to Formation of Mathematical Abstractions. Mathematics Education Research Journal,Vol.19 (2), 89112. Panasuk, R. M. (2011). Taxonomy for Assessing Conceptual Understanding in Algebra Using Multiple Representation. College Student Journal, Vol. 45 (2), 219232. Spring Hill Station, Mobile, AL. Retrieved from http://jasonadair.wiki.westga.edu/file/view/Taxonomy+for+ assessing+conceptual+understanding+in+Algebra+using+multiple+representations.pdf Paschos, T. & Farmaki, V. (2006). The Reflective Abstraction in the Construction of the Concept of the Definite Integral: A Case Study. Retrieved from ftp://ftp.math.ethz.ch/EMIS/proceedings/ PME30/4/337.pdf), Ruch, F.L. (1967). Psychology and Life. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman. Schoenfeld, A.H. (1992). Learning to Think Mathematically: Problem Solving, Metacognition, and Sense Making in Mathematics. In: D. Grouws (Ed). Handbook for Research on Mathematics Teaching and Learning. New York, NY: MacMillan. Silver, H.F., Brunsting, J.R., Walsh, T. & Thomas, E.J. (2012). Math Tools, Grades 3–12. 60+ Ways to Build Mathematical Practices, Differentiate Instruction, and Increase Student Engagement. Second Edition. Sage Publishing. Solso, R.L, MacLin, O.H. & MacLin, M.K. (2008) Cognitive Psychology. Eighth Edition. Pearson. Stacey, K. (2014) What is mathematical thinking and why is it important? Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254408829 Tall, D. (2002) Advanced Mathematical Thinking. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Tall, D. (2009) The Development of Mathematical Thinking: ProblemSolving and Proof. Retrieved from http://homepages.warwick.ac.uk/staff/David.Tall/pdfs/dot2009dpaperforjohn mason.pdf Turnau, S. (Ed) (2008). Handbook of Mathematics Teaching Improvement:Professional Practices that Address PISA. Output of the Krygowska Project. “Professional Development of TeacherResearchers” 20052008. University of Rzeszów. KSERKOP, Kraków, Poland: Drukarnia Cyfrowa. Walle, J. A.V. (2007). Elementary and Middle School Mathematics. Cetakan ketujuh. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. Zimbardo, P.G. & Ruch, F.L. (1977). Psychology and Life. Ninth Edition. Chicago, Illinois: Pearson Scott Foresman. Zull, J. E. (2002). The Art of Changing the Brain. Sterling, VA: Stylush Publishing. 
View Abstract References Full text PDF 
7 
Investigation into Selfregulation, Engagement in Learning Mathematics and Science and Achievement among Bahrain Secondary School StudentsMasooma Ali Al Mutawah, Ruby Thomas & Myint Swe Khine
pp. 633653  Article Number: iejme.2017.037
Abstract Students’ view on themselves is the root of selfregulatory skills, and it will serve as an evaluator of their capability to succeed. This study attempts to find the relationship between students’ selfregulation in learning and academic achievements in Mathematics and Science in the secondary schools in Bahrain. ‘Engagement in Mathematics/Science Learning and SelfRegulation’ questionnaires adopted from TIMSS (2011) and administered to different sets of students. The data was analyzed to explore the reliability of the questionnaires and the association between selfregulation and academic achievement. The study found that there is a positive correlation between them in both cases. Keywords: Selfregulation, Engagement, Academic achievement and Reliability References Bandura, A. (1997). Selfefficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Baumeister, R. F. & Vohs, K. D. (2004). Handbook of selfregulation: Research, theory, and applications. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Becker, D. R., McClelland, M. M., Loprinzi, P., & Trost, S. G. (2014). Physical activity, selfregulation, and early academic achievement in preschool children. Early Education & Development, 25, 56–70. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2013.780505. Bembenutty, H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2003, April). The relation of motivational beliefs and selfregulatory processes to homework completion and academic achievement. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. BernierClarebout, G., Horz, H., & Schnotz, W. (2010). The relations between selfregulation and the embedding of support in learning environments. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58 (5), 573587. Boekaerts, M. (1996). Selfregulated learning at the junction of cognition and motivation. European Psychologist, 1, 100–112. Boekaerts, M., & Corno, L. (2005) Selfregulation in the classroom: A perspective on assessment and intervention. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54(2), 199231. Bull, R. & Scerif, G. (2001) Executive functioning as a predictor of children’s mathematics ability: inhibition, switching, and working memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19, 273–293. Butler, D. L., & Winne, P.H. (1995). Feedback and selfregulated learning: A theoretical synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65(3), 245281. Canca, D. (2005). Cinsiyete gore universite oğrencilerinin kullandıklarıbilişsel ve bilişustu oğrenme stratejileri ve akademik başarıları arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi. Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Yıldız Teknik Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul. Cantwell, R. H. (1998). The development of beliefs about learning from mid to late adolescence. Educational Psychology, 18(1), 2740. Corno, L. (2001). Volitional aspects of selfregulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Selfregulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 191226). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Crawford, K., Gordon, S., Nicholas, J., & Prosser, M. (1998). University mathematics students’ conceptions of mathematics. Studies in Higher Education, 23, 8794. Davis, D. (2011). NonCognitive Constructs and SelfReported Creativity by Domain. Journal of Creative Behavior, Volume 45 Number 3 Third Quarter 2011, 188198. De Backer, T. K., & Nelson, R. M. (1999). Variations on an expectancyvalue model of motivation in science. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 24, 71–94. De Bruin, A.B., Thiede, K.W., & Camp, G. (2011). Generating keywords improves metacomprehension and selfregulation in elementary and middle school children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109 (3), 294310. De Corte, E., Mason, L., Schraw, G., Crippen, K., & Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting selfregulation in science education: metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111139. De Corte, E., Op’t Eynde, P., & Verschaffel, L. (2002). ―Knowing what to believe: Therelevance of students’ mathematical beliefs for mathematics education. In B. K. Hofer & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 297 320). De corte, E., Verschaffel, L., & Op’teynde, P. (2000). Selfregulation: A characteristic goal of mathematics education. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 687722). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Handbook of self determination research. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Eilam B., Zeidner M. and Aharon, I. (2009) Student conscientiousness, selfregulated learning, and science achievement: an explorative field study. Psychology in the Schools, 46 (5), 420  432. www.interscience.wiley.com. DOI: 10.1002/pits.20387. Eom, Y., & Reiser, R. A. (2000). The effects of self regulation and instructional control on performance and motivation in computerbased instruction. International Journal of Instructional Media, 27(3), 247261. Ergöz, G. (2008). Investigation of selfregulated learning and motivational beliefs mathematics achievement Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Middle East Technical University, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Ankara. Eshel, Y., & Kohavi, R. (2003). Perceived classroom control, selfregulated learning strategies, and academic achievement. Educational Psychology, 23, 249260. Forgas, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Tice D. M. (2009). Psychology of selfregulation. Cognitive, affective and motivational processes. New York: Psychology Press Tylor & Francis Group. Fox, K. R., & Wilson, P. M. (2008).Selfperceptual systems and physical activity. In T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 4964). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Garavalia, L. S., & Gredler, M. E. (2002). An exploratory study of academic goal setting, achievement calibration and selfregulated learning. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29 (4), 221230. Glaser, C., & Brunstein, J. C. (2007). Improving fourthgrade students’ composition skills: Effects of strategy ınstruction and selfregulation procedures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99 (2), 297310. Gollwitzer, P. M., & Brandstätter, V. (1997). Implementation intentions and effective goal pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73(1), 186199. Grouws, D. A., Howald, C. L., & Colangelo, N. (1996, April). Student conceptions of mathematics: A comparison of mathematically talented students and typical high school algebra students. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY. Hannula M., Evans J., Philippou, G., and Zan R. (2004) Affect in mathematics education – exploring theoretical frameworks. Proceedings of the 28th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, l, 107–136. Harris, K. & Graham, S. (1999). Programmatic intervention research: Illustrations from the evolution of selfregulated strategy development. Learning Disability Quarterly, 22, 251262. Harris, K. R., Friedlander, B.D., Saddler, B., Frizzelle, R. & Graham, S. (2005). Self monitoring of attention versus selfmonitoring of academic performance: Effects among students with ADHD in the general education classroom. Journal of Special Education, 39 (3), 145156 Haşlaman, T. (2005). Programlama dersi ile ilgili ozduzenleyici oğrenme stratejileri ve başarı arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi: Bir yapısal eşitlik modeli. Yayınlanmamış yüksek lisans tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara. Hofer, S.M.(1999. Assessing personality structure using factorial invariance procedure, in I.Mervielde, I.J. Deary, F. De Fruyt and F. Osterndof (eds) Personality Psychology in Europe, vol. 7, pp. 3549. Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg University Press. IranNejad, A. (1990). Active and dynamic self regulation of learning processes. Review of Educational Research, 60, 573602. Kenney, P. A., & Silver, E. A. (Eds.). (1997, November). Results from the sixth mathematics assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Kinney, D. P. (2001). Developmental theory: Application in a developmental mathematics program. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(2), 1012, 14, 16,18, 34. Kitsansas, A., Sten, S., & Huie, F. (2009). The role of selfregulated strategies and goal orientation in predicting achievement of elementary school children. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 2 (1), 6581. Koller, O. (2001). Mathematical world views and achievement in advanced mathematics in Germany: Findings from TIMSS population 3. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 27, 6578. Kolovelonis, A., Goudas, M., & Dermitzaki, I. (2011). The effect of different goals and selfrecording on selfregulation of learning a motor skill in a physical education setting. Learning and Instruction, 21 (3), 355364. Kuhl, J., & Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing selfregulation and selfcontrol: The volitional components inventory. In J. H. C. S. Dweck (Ed.), Motivation and selfregulation across the life span (pp. 1549). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Labuhn, A.S., Zimmerman, B.J., & Hasselhorn, M. (2010). Enhancing students’ self regulation and mathematics performance: The influence of feedback and self evaluative standards Metacognition and Learning, 5 (2), 173194. Lampert, M. (1990). When the problem is not the question and the solution is not the answer: Mathematical knowing and teaching. American Educational Research Journal, 27, 2963. Leininger, L. J. and Khalil, A. (2008) Cognitive and NonCognitive Predictors of Success in AEP. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(3), 521535. DOi: 10.1002/pam.20357. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Muis, K. R. (2004). Personal epistemology and mathematics: A critical review and synthesis of research. Review of Educational Research, 74, 317377. McClelland, M. M., Cameron Ponitz, C. E., Connor, C. M., Farris, C. L., Jewkes, A. M., & Morrison, F. J. (2007). Links between behavioral regulation and preschoolers’ literacy, vocabulary, and math skills. Developmental Psychology, 43, 947–959. doi:10.1037/00121649.43.4.947. McClellan, E. (1999). Moral education in America: Schools and the shaping of character from colonial times to the present.New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., Houts, R., Poulton, R., Roberts, B.W., Ross, S.,Sears, M. R., Thomson, W. M. & Caspi, A. (2011) A gradient of childhood selfcontrol predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2693–2698. Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Nota, L., Soresi, S., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2004). Selfregulation and academic achievement and resilience: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Research, 41(3), 198215. Pajares, F. (2002) Gender and Perceived SelfEfficacy in SelfRegulated Learning, Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 116125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4102_8. Pape, S. J., & Smith, C. (2002). Selfregulating mathematics skills. Theory into Practice, 41, 93101. Paulsen, M. B., & Feldman, K. A. (2007). The conditional and interaction effects of epistemological beliefs on the selfregulated learning of college students: Cognitive and behavioral strategies. Research in Higher Education, 48, 353401. Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in selfregulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation (pp. 451–502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Columbus, OH: Merrill. Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. (1990). Motivational and selfregulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(1), 3350. Pintrich, P., R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, Ann Arbor: Michigan, ED 338 122. Pokay, P., & Blumenfeld, P. C. (1990). Predicting achievement early and late in the semester: The role of motivation and use of learning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 4150. Ruban, L., & Reis, S. M. (2006). Patterns of selfregulatory strategy use among lowachieving and high achievming university students, Roeper Review, 28 (3), 148156. Schmeichel, B.J.; Baumeister. (2006) Selfregulatory processes defend against the threat of death: Effects of selfcontrol depletion and trait selfcontrol on thoughts and fears of dying. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 4962. Schoenfeld, Alan H.(1992). "Learning to think mathematically: Problem solving, metacognition, and sense making in mathematics." Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning: 334370. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1987). What’s all the fuss about metacognition? In A. H. Schoenfeld (Ed.), Cognitive science and mathematics education (pp. 189215). Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Schoenfeld, A. H. (1989). Explorations of students’ mathematical beliefs and behavior. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 20,338355. SchommerAikins, M., Duell, O. K., & Hutter, R. (2005). Epistemological beliefs, mathematical problemsolving beliefs, and academic performance of middle school students. The Elementary School Journal, 105, 289304. Schunk, D. H. (1986). Verbalization and children’s selfregulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 347–369. Schunk, D. H. (1996). Goal and selfevaluative influences during children’s cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 359–382. Seider, S. and Soutter, M. (2013) College Access, Student Success, and the New Character Education. Journal of College & Character, 14(4), 351 356. doi:10.1515/jcc20130044. Schunk, D. H. (2000). Coming to terms with motivational constructs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 116–119. Shunk, D. (1996). Goal and selfevaluative influences during children’s cognitive skill learning. American Educational Research Journal, 33, 359382. Schunk, D. H. (1995). Selfefficacy and education and instruction. In J. E. Maddux (Ed.), Selfefficacy, adaptation, and adjustment: Theory, research, and application(pp. 281303). New York: Plenum Press. Sparkman, L., Maulding, W. S. and Roberts, J. G. (2002) Noncognitive predictors of student success in college. College Student Journal, 642652. Strayhorn, T. (2015) Factors Influencing Black Males’ Preparation for College and Success in STEM Majors: A Mixed Methods Study. The Western Journal o f Black Studies, 39(1), 4563. Trainin, G., & Swanson, H. L. (2005). Cognition, metacognition, and achievement of college students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 28(4), 261272. Uredi, I. ve Uredi, L. (2005). İlkoğretim 8. sınıfoğrencilerinin oz duzenleme stratejileri ve motivasyonel inanclarının matematik başarısını yordama gucu. MersinÜniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 1(2), 250260. Valiente, C., LemeryChalfant, K., Swanson, J. & Reiser, M. (2008) Prediction of children’s academic competence from their effortful control, relationships, and classroom participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 67–77. Velayutham S., Aldridge S. J., and Fraser B. (2011) Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Students’ Motivation and Self Regulation in Science Learning. International Journal of Science Education, 33(15), 2159 – 2179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2010.541529. Velayutham S., Aldridge S. J., and Fraser B. (2012) Gender differences in student motivation and selfregulation in science learning: a multigroup structural equation modeling analysis. International journal of science and mathematics education, 10, 13471368. Winne, P. H. (2000). Information processing models of selfregulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Selfregulated learning and academic achievement: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Longman. Wolters, C.A. (2011). Regulation of motivation: Contextual and social aspects. Teachers College Record, 113 (2), 265283. Zhou, Q., Main, A. & Wang, Y. (2010) The relations of temperamental effortful control and anger/frustration to Chinese children’s academic achievement and social adjustment: a longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 180–196. Zimmerman, B. J. (1995). Selfefficacy and educational development. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Selfefficacy in changing societies (pp. 202–231). New York: Cambridge University Press. Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Development and adaptation of expertise: The role of selfregulatory processes and beliefs. In K. A. Ericsson, N. Charness,P. J. Feltovich & R. R. Hoffman (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 705722). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Zimmerman, B. J., & Kitsantas, A. (2005). Homework practices and academic achievement: The mediating role of selfefficacy and perceived responsibility beliefs. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 30, 397–417. Zimmerman, B. J. (2002) Becoming a SelfRegulated Learner: An Overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(2), 6470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15430421tip4102_2. Zimmerman, B. (2000). Attaining selfregulated learning: A socialcognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of selfregulation (pp. 13–39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & MartinezPons, M. (1992). Selfmotivation for academic attainment: The role of selfefficacy beliefs and personal goals setting. American Educational Research Journal, 29, 663676. Zimmerman, B. J., & Bandura, A. (1994). Impact of selfregulatory influences on writing course attainment. American Educational Research Journal, 31, 845862. Zimmerman, B. J. (1998). Developing selffulfilling cycles of cademic regulation: An analysis of exemplary instructional models . In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Selfregulated learning: From teaching to selfreflective practice (pp. 119). Zimmerman, B. J., & MartinezPons, M. (1988). Construct validation of a strategy model of student selfregulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 284290. Zimmerman, B. J., & MartinezPons, M. (1986). Development of a structured interview for assessing student use of selfregulated learning strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 614628. Zusho, A., Pintrich, P. R., & Coppola, B. (2003). Skill and will: The role of motivation and cognition in the learning of college chemistry. International Journal of Science Education, 25 (9), 10811094. 
View Abstract References Full text PDF 